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Traditional Library

Research & Publications

 The research of the CBL focuses on the role of culture and related psychological and social factors in human behavior, with particular emphasis on behavioral phenomena relevant to health, wellbeing, and social issues. We investigate how aspects of culture, such as socially shared values, beliefs, norms, and practices relate to psychological phenomena, such as bias, prejudice, and cognition-emotion processes, as determinants of behavior and outcome. At the same time, we also examine how diversity factors, such as race, ethnicity, social class, age, gender, sexual orientation, religion, or political ideology relate to culture, psychological factors and behavior. Our research is guided by the Betancourt Integrative Model of Culture and Behavior and corresponding mixed methods cultural research approach to instrument development. A number of research projects have tested the key propositions of this conceptual model, concerning the structure of relations among socio-structural, cultural, and psychological determinants of behavior and outcome, which provides support to the integrative framework that guides the work of the CBL in areas related to healthcare and social issues.

In the area of health and wellbeing, we study the role of culture and diversity in psychological processes and behaviors relevant to health care, such as cancer screening, continuity of care, treatment adherence, and seeking psychological services. For example, we examine how cultural beliefs and values (e.g. fatalism) and related psychological processes (e.g. self-efficacy) influence health behavior (e.g. treatment adherence) and outcomes relevant to chronic disease (e.g. diabetes). We are particularly interested in the role of culturally based interventions to improve health behavior and outcome among culturally diverse patient populations in primary care.

Foot Tracks on Sand

Culture, Health, & Well-Being


Relations, Biases, Discrimination and Social Issues

Our research on interpersonal behavior and social (e.g. race/ethnic) relations examines the role of psychological phenomena, such as bias, prejudice, and related cognition-emotion processes in health disparities and social inequities. For example, we study how bias and cognition-emotion processes impact patient-provider interactions and quality of care. This work is based on conceptual models that focus on the role of cognition (attribution)-emotion processes in helping behavior and violence in conflict situations . At the same time, we examine the role of culture, particularly within the context of a multicultural society and a democratic system often challenged by social inequalities, populism, political polarization and related conflict. This cultural approach can also inform intervention, the training of culturally competent providers, and policies concerning health disparities and related social inequities.

Representative Publications

Ly, A., Flynn, P. M. & Betancourt, H.B. (in press). Cultural beliefs about diabetes-related social exclusion and diabetes distress impact self-care behaviors and HbA1c among patients with type 2 diabetes. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 

Gavaza, P., Rawal, B. M., & Flynn, P. (2023). An exploratory qualitative study of pharmacy student perspectives of implicit bias in pharmacy practice. Currents in  Pharmacy Teaching & Learning, S1877-1297(23)00006-0. (PDF)


Nance, C. M., Betancourt, H., & Flynn, P. M. (2022). The role of cultural beliefs and distress in adherence to recommended physical activity among patients with  type 2 diabetes mellitus. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 45(3), 472–480. (PDF)

Salinas Oñate, N., Betancourt, H., Flynn, P.M., Baeza Rivera, M., & Ortiz, M. (2022). Investigating psychological service utilization employing an integrative  sociostructural, cultural, and behavioral framework. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 53. (PDF)

Flynn, P. M., Betancourt, H., Emerson, N. D., Nunez, E. I., & Nance, C. M. (2020). Health professional cultural competence reduces the psychological and behavioral impact of negative healthcare encounters. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 26(3), 271–279. (PDF)

Betancourt, H., & Flynn, P. (2019). Healthcare Mistreatment and Cultural Beliefs Impact HbA1c in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Acta de Investigación  Psicológica, 9. (PDF)

Hilton, B. T., Betancourt, H., Morrell, H. E. R., Lee, H., & Doegey, J. A. (2018). Substance Abuse Among American Indians and Alaska Natives: An Integrative Cultural Framework for Advancing Research. International Journal of Mental Health & Addiction, 16(2), 507–523. (PDF)

Ortiz, M. S., Baeza-Rivera, M. J., Salinas-Oñate, N., Flynn, P., & Betancourt, H. (2016). Healthcare mistreatment attributed to discrimination among mapuche patients and discontinuation of diabetes care. Revista Medica De Chile, 144(10), 1270–1276. (PDF)

Flynn, P. M., Betancourt, H., Garberoglio, C., Regts, G. J., Kinworthy, K. M., & Northington, D. J. (2015). Attributions and emotions regarding health care mistreatment impact continuity of care among Latino and Anglo American women. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 21(4),593603. (PDF

Amador, J. A., Flynn, P. M., & Betancourt, H. (2015). Cultural beliefs about health professionals and perceived empathy influence continuity of cancer screening following a negative encounter. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 38(5), 798–808. (PDF)

Herbozo, S., Flynn, P. M., Stevens, S. D., & Betancourt, H. (2015). Dietary Adherence, Glycemic Control, and Psychological Factors Associated with Binge Eating  Among Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Chileans with Type 2 Diabetes. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 22(6), 797-798 (PDF)

Flynn, P. M., Betancourt, H., & Ormseth, S. R. (2011). Culture, Emotion, and Cancer Screening: An Integrative Framework for Investigating Health Behavior. Annals of Behavioral Medicine : A Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine, 42(1), 79–90. (PDF)

Betancourt, H., Flynn, P. M., & Ormseth, S. R. (2011). Healthcare Mistreatment and Continuity of Cancer Screening among Latino and Anglo American women in Southern California. Women & Health, 51(1), 1–24. (PDF)

Betancourt, H., Flynn, P. M., Riggs, M., & Garberoglio, C. (2010). A cultural research approach to instrument development: The case of breast and cervical cancer screening among Latino and Anglo women. Health Education Research, 25(6), 991–1007. (PDF)

Betancourt, H., & Flynn, P. M. (2009). The psychology of health: Physical health and the role of culture and behavior. In F. A. Villarruel, G. Carlo, J. M. Grau, M. Azmitia, N. J. Cabrera, & T. J. Chahin (Eds.), Handbook of U.S. Latino psychology: Developmental and community-based perspectives (pp. 347–361). (PDF)

Koneru, V. K., Weisman de Mamani, A. G., Flynn, P. M., & Betancourt, H. (2007). Acculturation and mental health: Current findings and recommendations for future research. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 12(2), 76–96. (PDF)

Betancourt, H. (2004). Attribution-Emotion Processes in White’s Realistic Empathy Approach to Conflict and Negotiation. Peace and Conflict: Journal of  Peace Psychology, 10, 369–380. (PDF)


Betancourt, H. (1997). An attribution model of social conflict and violence: From psychological to intergroup phenomena. Psykhe: Revista de La  Escuela de Psicología, 6, 3–12. (PDF)

Amirkhan, J., Betancourt, H., Graham, S., López, S. R., & Weiner, B. (1995). Reflections on Affirmative Action Goals in Psychology Admissions. Psychological  Science,  6(3), 140–148 (PDF)

Betancourt, H., & López, S. R. (1993). The study of culture, ethnicity, and race in American psychology. American Psychologist, 48, 629–637. (PDF

Triandis, H. C., McCusker, C., Betancourt, H., Iwao, S., Leung, K., Salazar, J. M., Setiadi, B., Sinha, J. B. P., Touzard, H., & Zaleski, Z. (1993). An etic-emic analysis of  individualism and collectivism. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 24, 366–383. (PDF)

Betancourt, H., Hardin, C., & Manzi, J. (1992). Beliefs, value orientation, and culture in attribution processes and helping behavior. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 23, 179–195. (PDF)

Betancourt, H., & Blair, I. (1992). A cognition (attribution)-emotion model of violence in conflict situations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 18,  343–350. (PDF)


Betancourt, H. (1990). An attribution-empathy model of helping behavior: Behavioral intentions and judgments of help-giving. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 16, 573–591. (PDF)

Triandis, H. C., Marín, G., Lisansky, J., & Betancourt, H. (1984). Simpatía as a cultural script of Hispanics. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 1363–1375. (PDF)

Marín, G., Triandis, H. C., Kashima, Y., & Betancourt, H. (1983). Ethnic affirmation versus social desirability: Explaining discrepancies in bilinguals’ responses to questionnaire. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 14, 173–186. (PDF)  

Betancourt, H., & Weiner, B. (1982). Attributions for achievement-related events, expectancy, and sentiments: A study of success and failure in Chile and the    United States. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 13, 362–374. (PDF)

Triandis, H. C., Lisansky, J., Setiadi, B., Chang, B.-H., Marin, G., & Betancourt, H. (1982). Stereotyping among Hispanics and Anglos: The Uniformity, Intensity,        Direction, and Quality of Auto- and Heterostereotypes. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 13(4), 409426. (PDF)

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